Kirschbaum, M.U.F. (2004). Direct and indirect climate-change effects on photosynthesis and transpiration.  Plant Biology 6: 242-253.

Abstract. Climate change affects plants in many different ways. Increasing CO2 concentration can increase photosynthetic rates which is especially pronounced for C3 plants, at high temperatures and under water-limited conditions. Increasing temperature also affects photosynthesis, but plants have a considerable ability to adapt to their growth conditions and can function under even extremely high temperatures, provided adequate water is available. Temperature optima differ between species and growth conditions, and they are higher in elevated atmospheric CO2.

With increasing temperature, vapour pressure deficits of the air may increase, and with that, the transpiration rate from plant canopies. However, if stomata close in response to increasing CO2 concentration, or if there is a reduction in the diurnal temperature range, then transpiration rates may even decrease.

Soil organic matter decomposition rates are likely to be stimulated by higher temperatures so that nutrients can be more readily mineralised and made available to plants, which is likely to increase photosynthetic carbon gain in nutrient-limited systems. All the factors listed above interact strongly so that for different combinations of increases in temperature and CO2 concentration, and for systems in different climatic regions and primarily affected by water or nutrient limitations, photosynthesis must be expected to respond differently to the same climatic changes.

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